The technique has developed very much since it has started in the late 80s. The pioneers used simple outer braces for lingual applications and later specific lingual braces were designed for this different morphology of teeth.
Nowadays, lingual orthodontics defines a subspecialty within orthodontics, and companies provide specific appliances wires and auxiliaries for lingual orthodontists. Also specific lingual laboratories provide services for the lingual brace programming. (Hermann Ortho)
The laboratory process for indirect bonding of 2D Lingual Brackets.
Courtesy of Dr. Alexander Gebhardt.